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Prostate Cancer : Please Remember These Symptoms

Prostate Cancer : Please Remember These Symptoms

Prostate is exocrine gland with the size of walnut.
It means that its fluid and secretions are made for outside of the body purpose. Prostate produces fluid which transports and nourishes sperm for the journey to female ovum or egg, and makes human life. The contraction of prostate forces the fluids out when orgasm.


Prostate - Spesific Antigen (PSA) is a type of protein excreted by the prostate to help semen retain its liquid state. If you find extra of this protein in your blood, it can be first sign of prostate cancer.
Prostate is also has role for urinate controller. It can tighten and restrict the flow of urine through urethra with the function of thousands tiny muscle fibers.

prostate cancer wiki

Prostate Cancer Data Statistic

Prostate cancer incidence rates are quite high but the good news is around 95% of the cases are detected and the treatment success rate itself is higher than other types of cancer. Just because the treatment technology has progressed so much until today, we need to keep in mind that cancer is still dangerous disease we need to check everytime.
H2: Common Rate of Prostate Cancer
Skin cancer is most common cancer for American men along with prostate cancer. According to American Cancer Society, the estimation of prostate cancer in United States for 2019 are :

  • Around 174.650 new prostate cancer cases
  • Around 31.620 death cases from prostate cancer.
Only about 1 every 350 men under 50 years old will be diagnosed, 1 every 52 for ages 50 to 59, 1 every 19 for ages 60 to 69, and 1 every 11 for ages 70 and older. Almost 60% of diagnosed men are 65 years old or older.

Risk Rate of Prostate Cancer


prostate cancer causes

For about 1 man every 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime. Men mainly diagnosed for age 65 or older and it is rare to find man aged before 40 diagnosed with this cancer. Age 66 is the average time to be diagnosed.

Deaths Rate of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is in number two position in cancer chart of American men behind the lung cancer with the death rate of 1 every 41 diagnosed men. For some reason this cancer is quite dangerous but not that deadly actually. Up until now more than 2,9 million men in United States are still living while diagnosed with this cancer.

Survival Rate of Prostate Cancer

The calculation and analysis of survival rates can help you to determine the ratio of people living after diagnosed with the same type and stage. The rates method we use is “5-Year Relative Survival Rates”. What does it mean? Relative survival rates compare men with the same stage and age of prostate cancer in overall population.
Example :
5-Year Survival Rate for spesific stage is 90% it means men that have been diagnosed with that stage cancer will likely live like about 90% of men who are not diagnosed at least 5 year after diagnosed.
These survival rate number comes from SEER (The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database, maintained by National Cancer Institute. The SEER itself tracks 5-year survival rate for United States based on the spread level of the cancer. The SEER database groups the cancer by : localized, regional, and distant stages.

  • Localized, no sign cancer has spread to outside of prostate, known as Stage I up to Stage III
  • Regional, cancer has spread to outside of prostate but still nearby, known as Stage III B or IV A
  • Distant, cancer has spread to distant area outside of prostate such as lung, liver, or bones, known as Stage IV B.

SEER Stage
5-year Relative Survival Rate
Localized
nearly 100%
Regional
nearly 100%
Distant
30%
All SEER stages combined
98%

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer attacks prostate gland which organ produces the fluid of semen and take control on urine for men. The gland itself located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. For United States, this is most common cancer for men but relatively easy to treat if detected in early stages. According to data on 2017, American Cancer Society predicts there will be 161.360 new cases of this kind of cancer and about 26.730 fatalities will happen because of it.

Prostate Cancer Facts

If you still wondering about what is it a prostate gland, let us review list below :

  • Prostate gland is the main part of male reproduction system
  • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer for men
  • Quiet easy to treat if detected in early stages and before it spreads
  • The symptons itself come with urination problem
  • Make sure to take regular medical checkup

Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs


prostate cancer medical treatment

Let us be honest, early stages of this type of cancer usually does not have symptoms or signs. But it does not mean we do not have any idea about the signs. Make sure you remember a few things which will be happened if symptoms appear :

  • Urge to urinate more frequently, especially night
  • Difficulty on maintain and commence urination
  • You find blood in your urine
  • More pain when urinate and less ejaculation
  • Difficulty on achieve or maintain erection
For advanced stages itself, these are few things which follows :

  • Pain on bone (spine, pelvis, ribs, or femur)
  • Fractured bones
  • Trouble urinating
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in semen
  • Feeling discomfort in pelvic area
  • Disfunction of erection
For cancer has spread to spine and compresses your spinal cord it may be :

  • Incontinence of urinate
  • Incontinence of fecal
  • Weaknesses on leg

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis


getting prostate cancer diagnosed

Physical examination will be executed by doctor and enquire any medical history. For patient has symptoms or showing high level PSA abnormalities, more advanced examination will be requested. The tests may include :
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), doctor will manually check abnormalities of the prostate with finger.
Biomarket Test, doing check on urine, blood, body tissues

If test above shows abnormalities, further tests will be executed :
PCA3, examining urine. PCA3 genes only found in prostate cancer cells
Transtectal ultrasound scan, imaging the infected area using probe which emits sounds
Biopsy, removal of 12 - 14 small piece of tissues from several areas from prostate to investigate under microscope.

To track the spread level or metastatis, doctor may use bone, CT scan, or MRI scan.

Prostate Cancer Stages

Cancer stages will be determined by the size and extent of the tumor cell and the level of metastatis. At stage 0 the tumor has not spread from the prostate, invaded another area, and invaded deeply to the gland. At stage 4 the cancer has spread to distant area, sites, and organs.

Prostate Cancer Treatments

The treatments will be divided into early stages and advanced stages.

Early Stages

For the early stages, when the cancer is small, still localized and have not spread to another area, the treatments will be:
Monitoring : regular check on PSA blood levels and no urgent action.
Radical prostatectomy : prostate is surgically removed
Brachytherapy : the prostate is implanted with radioactive seeds to do radiation treatment to targeted area
Conformal radiation therapy : radiation beams are shaped as same as the infected region to minimize healthy tissues to be exposed to radiation.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy : advanced form of conformal radiation therapy.
For the treatment of early stages it may need around 4 to 6 months.

Advanced Stages

For the advanced stages which is more aggressive and have spread further in the body, we need :
Chemotherapy, recommended treatment, can kill cancer cells
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), androgen itself is male hormone which stimulate cancer cells growth. ADT will reduce andorgen level so the cancer growth will be slowed down and even stopped.

Prostate Cancer Causes

This type of cancer usually starts in the glandular cells known as adenocarcinoma. Shape and size of your prostate gland cells can change even it is just tiny change. This phenomenon is called by Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN). It happens very slowly until further progression.
Around 50% of men over 50 years old have PIN. The high percentage of PIN is usually considered by pre-cancerous and need further medical checkup. Low percentage of PIN don’t need immediate concern. Prostate cancer itself can be treated relatively easy if detected before metastatis but if it spreads, it will be dangerous and the next infected area is mostly your bones.
Mutations in cells’ DNA cause the cells grow and divide abnomally faster than normal. These abnormal cells keep living and the others cell keep dying. More abnormality cells growing, it form tumor cell that grow and invade nearby tissue. Some of the cells can even break off and spread (metastasize) other parts of the body.

Prostate Cancer Prevention

If you intend to reduce the risk of this cancer you can do these prostate cancer prevention things below :

  • Healthy diet of vegetables and fruits. High fat foods must be avoided whenever you can. You can choose a lot of variety of fruits, whole grains, and vegetables. Vitamins and nutrients from vegetables and fruits contribute a lot for your health. Diet habit full of vegetables and fruits not reducing the cancer risk directly but still if your body is healthy the chance of getting sick will be reduced.
  • Reduce supplements, increase healthy foods. There is medical records that supplements take role on reducing cancer risk. You can eat a lot of vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins and nutrients to maintain your health level.
  • Exercise everyday. Daily exercise boost your antibody, vitality, and reduce risk of getting many disease. Study shows men who lack of exercise have higher level of PSA and who do daily exercise has lower rate of getting prostate cancer.
  • Avoid overweight. You may ask your doctor to maintain your weight or maybe do some weight loss.
  • Ask the professional. Asking your doctor anything about prostate cancer may help you getting the idea which one you must avoid and which one you must do.

Conclusions

While prostate cancer has higher chance of successful treatment does not mean you can ignore it. Every cancer is dangerous and deadly. Keep in mind about the symptoms you must aware and do not hesitate to ask your doctor about the trigger or even the treatment. Take medical checkup regularly and do not forget to share this information to your dearest one.


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